Oscript language reference

Autonomous agents

Autonomous agents (AA) are special addresses (accounts) on the ledger that do not belong to anybody. An AA can send transactions only in response to a triggering transaction sent to it and strictly according to a program associated with the AA. This program is open and known in advance, it specifies the AA's reaction to triggering transactions. The reaction depends on:

  • coins sent by the triggering transaction: how much of which asset were sent;

  • data sent by the triggering transaction;

  • environment that exists in the ledger when the trigger is received: balances, data posted by oracles, attestations, state variables.

The AA's reaction can be one or a combination of:

  • sending some other coins back to the sender or to a third party (which can be another AA);

  • changing the environment of the ledger by posting data feeds, attestations, updating state variables, etc.

The behavior of autonomous agents is similar to vending machines: they accept coins and data entered on a keypad (the triggering action), and in response they release a cup of coffee or play a song, or do whatever they are programmed to do. What's common between them, their behavior is predictable, known in advance.

There are no private/public keys associated with AAs. Their transactions do not have signatures. Their transactions are created by all (full) nodes just by following the common protocol rules and executing the code associated with the AA. All nodes always come to the same result and produce exactly the same transaction that should be sent on behalf of the AA. As one comes to expect from a DAG, all nodes arrive at the same view of the ledger state just by following the rules, without any votings, proof-of competitions, or leaders.

The AA-generated transactions are not broadcast to peers as peers are expected to generate the same transactions on their own.

The language used to specify the AA behavior is a domain specific language that we call Oscript. It was designed specifically for AAs to make it easy to write an autonomous agent behavior, make it easy to argue about what is going on in the AA code, and make it hard to make difficult-to-track errors.

To control the resource consumption, the language does not support loops. Resource usage is controlled by setting a cap on the complexity of the program -- too resource heavy programs are simply not allowed. However, the resource caps provide enough room for the vast majority of practical applications.

AAs can "call" other AAs by sending coins to them. All the scripts in the calling AA are finished and all changes committed before passing control on to the next AA, this avoids completely the reentrancy problem common in other smart contract platforms.

Autonomous agent definition

Addresses of autonomous agents follow the same general rules as all other Obyte addresses: their definitions are two-element arrays and the address is a checksummed hash of the array encoded in base32.

AA address is defined as:

["autonomous agent", {
    // here goes the AA code

The second element of the above array is an object that defines a template for future units created by the AA. The template's structure follows the structure of a regular unit in general, with some elements dynamic and dependent upon the input and state parameters. The dynamic elements are designated with special markup and include code in a domain specific language called Oscript:

    address: "{trigger.address}",
    amount: "{trigger.output[[asset=base]] - 1000}"

The concept is similar to how such languages as PHP, ASP, and JSP work. For example, a PHP script is a HTML file interspersed with fragments of PHP code enclosed between <?php and ?> tags. These fragments make the HTML page dynamic while keeping its HTML structure. While this mix can quickly become messy when PHP is used to generate HTML code, the ease of creating dynamic web pages by just inserting small pieces of code into HTML was one of the main selling points of these programming languages in the early days of the web. And it enabled quick prototyping, iteration, experimentation, and eventually led to the creation of some of the biggest pieces of the modern Internet (wordpress and facebook, to name a few).

Transactions, or storage units as we call them in Obyte, are similarly the basic building units of distributed ledgers. They are usually represented as JSON objects, which are the counterparts of HTML pages on the web. Now, to make it easy to create dynamic, parameterized JSON objects representing transactions, we allow to inject some code into JSON and invite the developers to apply their creativity and do the rest.

Document formatScripting language







This is an example of autonomous agent definition:

["autonomous agent", {
    bounce_fees: { base: 10000 },
    doc_url: "https://example.com/doc_urls/{{aa_address}}.json",
    messages: [
            app: "payment",
            payload: {
                asset: "base",
                outputs: [
                        address: "{trigger.address}",
                        amount: "{trigger.output[[asset=base]] - 1000}"

Here messages is a template for the AA's response transaction. It has only one message -- a payment message that will send the received amount less 1000 bytes back to sender. Omitting the amount entirely would send everything back (minus the fees). There are code fragments in strings enclosed in curly braces "{}", they are evaluated and the result is inserted in place of the code.

Before sending the resulting response transaction, the nodes on the network will also enhance it with change outputs (if necessary) and add other necessary fields in order to attach the transaction to the DAG: parents, last stable unit, authors, timestamp, fees, etc.

Below is a specification of the unit template format.

JSON format


["autonomous agent", {
    bounce_fees: {
        base: 10000,
        "n9y3VomFeWFeZZ2PcSEcmyBb/bI7kzZduBJigNetnkY=": 100

This is an optional field of the unit template that specifies the fees charged from sender if the AA execution fails. In this case, all the received money in all assets is automatically bounced back to sender, less the bounce fees. The fees are keyed by asset ID (base for bytes).

The minimum and default bounce fee for bytes is 10000 bytes. The minimum and default bounce fee for all other assets is 0. Non-base bounce fees apply only to those assets that were actually received by the autonomous agent.

Sending to an autonomous agent anything less than the bounce fees will result in no response and the AA silently eating the coins. However this rule applies only to money sent from regular addresses. Bounce fees are not checked when the money is received from another AA.

bounce_fees field is removed from the final unit.


Each deployed autonomous agent can have a URL that points to a JSON formatted documentation file, which content will be shown to users in wallet app. URL can contain {{aa_address}} placeholder, which will be replaced with actual AA address before fetching the JSON file. The structure of the JSON file should look like this:

	"version": "1.0",
	"description": "Description shown to users",
	"homepage_url": "https://example.com",
	"source_url": "https://github.com/byteball/ocore",
	"field_descriptions": {
		"some_field_name": "Description how to use this parameter",
		"some_other_field_name": "Description how to use this other parameter",

Keys in field_descriptions object should match all the keys in trigger.data that users can use with this AA, wallet app will add value of that fields as an explanation what it does. The value of version should be as shown above ("1.0") - it should NOT used as version of AA.


This is the main field of autonomous agent definition. It specifies templates for the messages to be generated, and the templates are parameterized with oscript code.

The messages can be of any type (called app) that Obyte supports. The most common app is payment, it is used to send payments in any asset back to sender or to a third party. Other apps are:

  • asset: used to define a new asset. Different parameters that can be used are documented on Issuing assets page;

  • data: used to send data, this includes sending data parameters to other (secondary) AAs;

  • data_feed: used to send data feeds. By doing this, the AA becomes an oracle;

  • profile: used to send one's own profile. Maybe an AA wants to say something to the world about itself;

  • text: used to save arbitrary text to the DAG;

  • definition: used to post a definition of a new AA;

  • asset_attestors: used to change the attestor list of an asset previously defined by this AA;

  • attestation: used to post information about some other address. By doing this, the AA becomes an attestor;

  • definition_template: used to post a template for smart contract definition;

  • poll: used to create a poll;

  • vote: used to vote in a poll. Every AA has voting rights after all.

Structure of those messages types is documented on Sending data messages section and Sending data to DAG page.

There is also another, special, app called state, which is not possible in regular units but is used only in AAs to produce state changes. More about it in a separate chapter.


It is possible to create parameterized Autonomous Agents, which are based on previously deployed templates. Their structure for that kind of Autonomous Agent would look like this:

["autonomous agent", {
    base_aa: "ADDRESS_OF_BASE_AA",
    params: {
        name1: "value1",
        name2: "value2",

The base AA template would need to reference these parameters as params.name1 and params.name2.

Oscript replacements

Any string, number, or boolean in the template can be calculated by a script. The script is evaluated and the result is inserted in place of the script, the type is preserved. For example, if 20000 bytes were sent from address 2QHG44PZLJWD2H7C5ZIWH4NZZVB6QCC7 to an AA, then this code

    address: "{trigger.address}",
    amount: "{trigger.output[[asset=base]] - 1000}"

would be replaced with

    address: "2QHG44PZLJWD2H7C5ZIWH4NZZVB6QCC7",
    amount: 19000

Object keys can also be parameterized with Oscript:

    "{trigger.data.key}": "value"

See the Oscript language reference below.

cases - template objects

JSON has scalars (strings, numbers, booleans) and objects (objects and arrays). Scalars can be parameterized through Oscript. Objects, on the other hand, are parameterized differently. They can have several alternative versions in the AA template, and only one version is selected based on input parameters and state. The versions and their selection criteria are specified using an object in cases array:

    messages: {
        cases: [
                if: "{trigger.data.define}",
                messages: [
                    // first version of messages
                if: "{trigger.data.issue}",
                init: "{$amount = trigger.output[[asset=base]];}",
                messages: [
                    // second version of messages
                messages: [
                    // default version of messages

The regular value of an object/array is replaced with an object whose single element is an array cases. Each element of the cases array is an object with up to 3 elements:

  • if: an Oscript expression. If the result of its evaluation is truthy then this case is selected. All other cases are not evaluated. if is required for all cases except the last, the last one may or may not have an if. If all previous cases evaluated to a falsy value and the last one is without an if, the last one is selected;

  • init: an optional statements-only Oscript that is evaluated immediately after if if this case is selected;

  • a mandatory element that is named the same as the original field (messages in the above example). If this case is selected, the original (3 levels higher) field is replaced with the value of this element.

In the above example, if the 2nd case were selected, the original object would fold into:

    messages: [
        // second version of messages

Cases can be nested.

Cases can be used for any non-scalar value inside messages, not just messages themselves.

if - conditional objects

Similar to the cases above, any object can have an additional if field. It is evaluated first, and if it is falsy, the entire object is removed from the enclosing object or array. Its internal Oscripts are not evaluated in this case.

    messages: [
            app: "data",
            payload: {
                timestamp: "{timestamp}",
                subscriber: "{trigger.address}"
            if: "{trigger.data.withdrawal_amount > 0}",
            app: "payment",
            payload: {
                asset: "base",
                outputs: [
                        address: "{trigger.address}",
                        amount: "{trigger.data.withdrawal_amount}"

In the above example, the payment message will be generated only if trigger.data.withdrawal_amount is a number greater than 0.

The if field itself is removed from the object.

init - statements object

Similar to the cases above, any object can have an additional init field. It is evaluated immediately after if when if is present and truthy. If there is no if, init is unconditionally evaluated first.

init must be a statements-only Oscript, it does not return a value.


    messages: [
            init: "{ $addr = trigger.address; }",
            app: "data",
            payload: {
                timestamp: "{timestamp}",
                subscriber: "{$addr}"
            if: "{trigger.data.withdrawal_amount > 1000}",
            init: "{ $amount = trigger.data.withdrawal_amount - 1000; }",
            app: "payment",
            payload: {
                asset: "base",
                outputs: [
                        address: "{trigger.address}",
                        amount: "{$amount}"

The init field itself is removed from the object.

Conditional object fields and array elements

If the value of any object field or array value evaluates to an empty string, this field or element is removed.

For example, object

    field1: "{ (1 == 2) ? 'value1' : '' }",
    field2: "value2"

will become

    field2: "value2"


[ `{ (1 == 2) ? "value1" : "" }`, "value2" ]

will become

[ "value2" ]

Sending all coins

If the amount field in an output within a payment message is omitted or evaluates to an empty string (which results in its removal per the above rules), this output receives all the remaining coins.

    messages: [
            if: "{trigger.data.send_all}",
            app: "payment",
            payload: {
                asset: "base",
                outputs: [
                        address: "2QHG44PZLJWD2H7C5ZIWH4NZZVB6QCC7",
                        amount: 1000
                        address: "{trigger.address}"

In the above example, 1000 bytes are sent to 2QHG44PZLJWD2H7C5ZIWH4NZZVB6QCC7, the rest of the AA's balance in bytes is sent to the address that triggered the AA.

Empty objects and arrays

If an object or array becomes empty as a result of various removals, it is also removed from the enclosing object or array.

State message

A state message is a special message in the messages array that performs state changes. It is the only oscript where state variables are assigned. Unlike regular messages that always have payload, state message has a field named state instead that contains a state changing script:

    messages: [
            app: "payment",
            payload: {
                asset: "base",
                outputs: [
                        address: "{trigger.address}",
                        amount: "{trigger.output[[asset=base]] - 1000}"
            app: "state",
            state: `{
                var['responded'] = 1;
                var['total_balance_sent_back'] += trigger.output[[asset=base]] - 1000;
                var[trigger.address || '_response_unit'] = response_unit;

The state message must always be the last message in the messages array. It is not included in the final response unit and its script (state script) is evaluated after the response unit is already prepared. It is the only oscript where response_unit variable is available. State script contains only statements, it is not allowed to return any value.


Local constants

$name1 = 1;
$name2 = 'value';
${'name' || 3} = $name1 + 10;

Local constant names are always prefixed with $. If the constant name itself needs to be calculated, the expression is enclosed in curly braces.

Local constants exist only during AA evaluation. Each constant can be assigned a value only once (single-assignment rule).

Each local constant is visible only in its own oscript after it was assigned. If it was assigned in if block, it is also available in all adjacent and enclosed oscripts. If it was assigned in init block, it is also available in all adjacent oscripts except if and in all oscripts enclosed in the same object.

        if: `{
            $amount = trigger.output[[asset=base]];
            // the result of the last expression is the result of if
            $amount == 10000
        init: `{
            // here we can reference $amount set in if
            $half_amount = round($amount / 2); 
        messages: [
                app: "payment",
                payload: {
                    asset: "base",
                    outputs: [
                            address: "{ trigger.address }",
                            amount: `{
                                // we are in an enclosed oscript
                                // and can reference $half_amount set in init
                app: "state",
                state: `{
                    // we are in an enclosed oscript
                    // and can reference $amount set in if
                    var['received'] = $amount;
                    // we are in an enclosed oscript
                    // and can reference $half_amount set in init
                    var['sent_back'] = $half_amount;
        if: "{trigger.data.payout}",
        init: `{
            // here we cannot reference $amount nor $half_amount from the above
            // we can even assign other values to them without breaking the single-assignment rule
            $amount = 10;

If an unassigned local constant is referenced, it is taken as false.

If-else blocks in curly braces do not create separate scopes for local constants:

if (trigger.data.deposit){
    $amount = trigger.output[[asset=base]];
$fee = round($amount * 0.01); // we can reference the $amount from above

Local constants can hold values of any type: string, number, boolean, or object (including array).

Objects and arrays

When a local constant holds an object, individual fields of the object can be accessed through dot or [] selector:

$data = trigger.data;
$action = $data.params.action;
$player_score = $data.params[$player_name || '_score'];

If the specified object field does not exist, the value is taken as false.

Objects and arrays can be initialized using familiar syntax as in other languages:

$obj = {a: 3, b: 7 };
$arr = [7, 2, 's', {a: 6}];

Although all local constants are single-assignment, objects and arrays can be mutated by modifying, adding, or deleting their fields:

$obj = {a: 3, b: 7 };
$obj.a = 4; // modifies an existing field
$obj.c = 10; // adds a new field
delete($obj, 'b'); // deletes a field
freeze($obj); // prohibits further mutations of the object

$arr = [7, 2, 's', {a: 6}];
$arr[0] = 8; // modifies an existing element
$arr[] = 5; // adds a new element
delete($arr, 1); // removes element 1
freeze($arr); // prohibits further mutations of the array

The left-hand selectors can be arbitrarily long .a.b[2].c.3.d[].e. If some elements do not exist, an empty object or array is created automatically. [] adds to the end of an array. Array indexes cannot be skipped, i.e. if an array has length 5, you cannot assign to element 7. Once you are done mutating an object, can call freeze() to prevent further accidental mutations.

Local functions

$f = ($x) => {
	 $a = var['a'];
	 $x * $a

// one-line syntax for functions that have only one expression
$sq = $x => $x^2;

$res = $f(2);
$nine = $sq(3);

Functions are local constants and the same rules apply to them.

The return value is the value of the last expression or a return statement.

A function sees all other local constants and functions declared before it. Because of this, recursion is impossible.

Constants declared before the function cannot be shadowed by its arguments or other local constants declared within the function.

Complexity of a function is the sum of complexities of all operations within it. Every time a function is called, its complexity is added to the total complexity of the AA. If a function is declared but never called, its complexity doesn't affect the complexity of the AA.

Remote functions (getters)

Getters are read-only functions available to other AAs and non-AA code.

They are meant to extract information about an AA state that is not directly available through state vars. E.g. in order to fetch this information one needs to perform some calculation over state vars or access several state vars and have good knowledge about the way information is stored in the AA.


  • oswap could expose functions that would calculate the price of a future exchange. Otherwise, clients would have to do non-trivial math themselves.

  • the token registry could expose a single getter $getTokenDescription($asset) for reading a token description, and a similar one for decimals. Otherwise, one has to read first $desc_hash = var['current_desc_' || $asset], then var['description_' || $desc_hash].

Getters are declared in a top-level getters section which is evaluated before everything else.

['autonomous agent', {
	getters: `{
		$sq = $x => $x^2;
		$g = ($x, $y) => $x + 2*$y;
		$h = ($x, $y) => $x||$y;
		$r = ($acc, $x) => $x + $acc;
	init: `{
		// uncomment if the AA serves as library only
		// bounce("library only");

The code in getters section can contain only function declarations and constants. Request-specific information such as trigger.data, trigger.outputs, etc is not available in getters.

In the AA which declares them, getters can be accessed like normal functions.

Other AAs can call them by specifying the remote AA address before the function name using this syntax:



$nine = $remote_aa.$sq(3);

If $remote_aa is a variable that cannot be evaluated at deploy time, you need to indicate the max complexity of the remote call either explicitly, after a #:

$nine = $remote_aa#5.$sq(3);

or as a variable that can be evaluated at deploy time:

$max_complexity = 5;
$nine = $remote_aa#$max_complexity.$sq(3);

or by indicating a base AA that the $remote_aa is a parameterized AA of:

$nine = $remote_aa#$base_aa.$sq(3);

The complexity of a remote call is the complexity of its function, plus one.

All functions declared in the getters section are publicly available. If some of them are not meant for public use, one can indicate this by a naming convention, e.g. by starting their names with an underscore $_callPrivateFunction() but information hiding cannot be really enforced since all getters operate on public data anyway.

Getters can also be conveniently called from non-AAs. In node.js code:

const { executeGetter } = require('ocore/formula/evaluation.js');
const db = require('ocore/db.js');

const args = ["arg1", "arg2"];
const res = await executeGetter(db, aa_address, getter, args);

For remote clients, there is a light/execute_getter command in WebSocket API, hopefully it will be shortly available through obyte.js.

State variables

State variables are persisted across invocations of autonomous agents.

Accessing state variables:

// assigning current AAs state variable to local constant
$my_var_name1 = var['var_name1'];

// assigning other AAs state variable to local constant
$their_var_name1 = var['JVUJQ7OPBJ7ZLZ57TTNFJIC3EW7AE2RY']['var_name1'];

Assigning state variables:

var['var_name1'] = 'var_value';
var['var_name2'] = 10;
var['var_name3'] += 10;
var['var_name4'] = false;
var['var_name5'] = {a:8, b:2};
var['var_name5'] ||= {c:6};  // concat an object

var['var_name'] reads the value of state variable var_name stored under current AA.

var['AA_ADDRESS']['var_name'] reads the value of state variable var_name stored under AA AA_ADDRESS. AA_ADDRESS is a valid address or this_address to refer to the current AA.

If there is no such variable, false is returned.

State variables can be accessed in any oscripts, but can be assigned only in state message script. Only state vars of the current AA can be assigned, state vars of other AAs are read-only. State vars can be reassigned multiple times but only the final value will be saved to the database and only if the AA finishes successfully. All changes are committed atomically. If the AA fails, all changes to state vars are rolled back.

State vars can temporarily hold strings, numbers, objects, and booleans but when persisting, true values are converted to 1 and false values result in removal of the state variable from storage. AAs are required to hold a minimum balance in bytes equal to the size of their storage (length of var names + length of var values). This will also incentivize them to free up unused storage. The size of AA’s storage occupied before the current invocation is in variable storage_size.

Internally, objects are stored as JSON strings and their length is limited. Don't try to store a structure in a state var if this structure can grow indefinitely.

In addition to regular assignment =, state variables can also be modified in place using the following operators:

  • +=: increment by;

  • -=: decrement by;

  • *=: multiply by;

  • /=: divide by;

  • %=: remainder of division by;

  • ||=: concatenate string/object/array.

For concatenation, the existing value of the var is converted to string.

For +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, the existing boolean value is converted to 1 or 0, strings result in error.

If the variable didn't exist prior to one of these assignments, it is taken as false and converted to number or string accordingly.

Each read or write operation on a state variable adds +1 to complexity. Assignment with modification also costs 1 in complexity.


var['sent_back'] = $half_amount;
var['count_investors'] += 1;
var['amount_owed'] += trigger.output[[asset=base]];
var['pending'] = false;
$x = var['JVUJQ7OPBJ7ZLZ57TTNFJIC3EW7AE2RY']['var_name1'];

Response variables

response['key'] = 'text';

Adds a key to the response object. Response variables do not affect state, they are meant to only inform the caller, and other interested parties, about the actions performed by the AA.

Response vars can only be assigned, never read. Response vars can be assigned and reassigned multiple times in any oscript. They can hold values of types: string, number, boolean. Attempting to assign an object would result in true being assigned.

Example: assigning these response variables

response['message'] = "set exchange rate to 0.123 tokens/byte";
response['deposit'] = 2250000;

will result in the following response object:

    "responseVars": {
        "message": "set exchange rate to 0.123 tokens/byte",
        "deposit": 2250000


The AAs are activated and responses are generated when the triggering unit gets stabilized. If the triggering unit triggers several AAs or there are several triggers that are included in the same MC unit and therefore get stabilized at the same time, the triggers are handled in deterministic order to ensure reproducibility on all nodes.

The first response unit has one or two parents:

  • the MC unit that just got stabilized and which includes the triggering unit;

  • the previous AA-generated unit (meaning, generated by any AA, not just the current one) if it is not already included in the first parent.

Any subsequent responses (generated by secondary AAs and in response to other triggers at the same MCI) are chained after the first response and then one after another.

After every response, 4 events are emitted:

  • aa_response

  • aa_response_to_unit- + trigger_unit

  • aa_response_to_address- + trigger_address

  • aa_response_from_aa- + aa_address

Applications, which are based on a full node can subscribe to these events to receive information about responses they are interested in, e.g.:

var trigger_address = '';

const eventBus = require('ocore/event_bus.js');
eventBus.on('aa_response_to_address-' + trigger_address, (objAAResponse) => {
    // handle event

Applications, which are based on light node will also need to add the address to their watched list in order to subscribe to these events:

var aa_address = '';

const walletGeneral = require('ocore/wallet_general.js');
const eventBus = require('ocore/event_bus.js');
walletGeneral.addWatchedAddress(aa_address, () => {
    eventBus.on('aa_response_from_aa-' + aa_address, (objAAResponse) => {
        // handle event

All 4 event handlers receive objAAResponse object as a single argument:

    mci: 2385,
    trigger_address: '2QHG44PZLJWD2H7C5ZIWH4NZZVB6QCC7',
    trigger_unit: 'f2S6Q3ufjzDyl9YcB51JUj2z9nE1sL4XL2VoYOrVRgQ=',
    aa_address: 'JVUJQ7OPBJ7ZLZ57TTNFJIC3EW7AE2RY',
    bounced: false,
    response_unit: 'JCJ1ZGkl2BtUlYoeu6U2yshp97pen/fIkTHvaKYjZa4=',
    objResponseUnit: {
        version: '2.0dev',
        alt: '3',
        timestamp: 1560939440,
        messages: [ ... ],
        authors: [ ... ],
        last_ball_unit: 'cxjDfHzWWgW8LqsC8yoDhgCYmwThmFfkdygGnDrxiFg=',
        last_ball: 'gjg8W2cE4WGFAIIsU2BvLOQKOpH/03Oo1SDS3/2SQDs=',
        witness_list_unit: '3gLI9EnI2xe3WJVPwRg8s4CB24ruetuddS0wYa2EI3c=',
        parent_units: [ 'f2S6Q3ufjzDyl9YcB51JUj2z9nE1sL4XL2VoYOrVRgQ=' ],
        headers_commission: 267,
        payload_commission: 157,
        unit: 'JCJ1ZGkl2BtUlYoeu6U2yshp97pen/fIkTHvaKYjZa4='
    response: {} 

The object has the following fields:

  • mci: the MCI of the triggering unit. The response unit is attached to the NC unit with the same MCI;

  • trigger_address: the address that sent coins to the AA and thus triggered it;

  • aa_address: AA address

  • bounced: true if the trigger was bounced, false otherwise;

  • response_unit: hash of the response unit or null if there is no response;

  • objResponseUnit: response unit object or null if there is no response;

  • response: response from the script. The object can have up to two fields: error for error message and responseVars for response variables set by scripts.

Secondary AAs

The generated response unit may contain outputs to other AAs. In this case, the receiving AAs are triggered too. They receive the outputs from the previous AA and the data (if any) from its generated data message.

Secondary AAs behave like the primary ones except that they may receive less than the minimum bounce fees.

If there are several secondary AAs triggered by a previous AA, they are handled in a deterministic order to make sure that the results are reproducible on all nodes. If a secondary AA triggers a ternary one in turn, it is handled before going on to the next secondary AA.

If any of the secondary AAs fails, the entire chain fails, all the changes produced by its AAs are rolled back, and the primary AA bounces.

The total number of secondary AAs stemming from a single primary AA cannot exceed 10, otherwise the primary AA fails and bounces.


If an AA fails for any reason (bad formula, attempt to send an invalid response, attempt to send more money than it has, etc), and attempt is made to bounce all the received coins back to sender, less bounce fees. All state changes are rolled back.

If creation of the bouncing transaction fails too, no transaction is created in response, i.e. the AA eats the coins.

The response object, which is not saved to the ledger, contains an error message explaining the reasons for failure.


Every variable assignment must be terminated by a semicolon ;. return and bounce statements are also terminated with a semicolon.

$amount = trigger.output[[asset=base]];
var['sent_back'] = round($half_amount/2);
response['message'] = "set exchange rate to 0.123 tokens/byte";
if ($amount >= 42000)
    bounce("amount too large");
if (balance[base] < 20000)

Two types of Oscripts

There are two types of Oscripts that can be used in AAs:

  • statements-only scripts that consist only of statements (such as assignments) and don't return any value. init script and state message are the only two allowed statements-only scripts;

  • scripts that return a value. They can have 0 or more statements but the last evaluated expression must not be a statement and its result is the result of the script.

Example of a statements-only script:

$amount = trigger.output[[asset=base]];
$action = trigger.data.action;

Example of a script that returns a value:

$amount = trigger.output[[asset=base]];
$action = trigger.data.action;

The result of evaluation of the last expression $amount*2 is returned.

Non-scalar return values

Usually, the return value of oscript is a scalar: string, number, or boolean. It is just inserted in place of the oscript.

If the return value is an object, it is similarly expanded and inserted in place of the original oscript. This can be used to send prepared objects through trigger.data.

For example, if trigger.data is

    output: {address: "BSPVULUCOVCNXQERIHIBUDLD7TIBIUHU", amount: 2e5}

and an AA has this message

    app: "payment",
    payload: {
        asset: "base",
        outputs: [

The resulting message will be

    app: "payment",
    payload: {
        asset: "base",
        outputs: [
                amount: 2e5

Flow control


return expr;

Interrupts the script's execution and returns the value of expr. This syntax can be used only in oscripts that are supposed to return a value.


Interrupts the script's execution without returning any value. This syntax can be used only in statements-only oscripts: init and state.

if else

if (condition){
    $x = 1;
    $y = 2 * $x;
    $x = 2;
    $z = $x^3;

Evaluates the first block of statements if the condition is truthy, the second block otherwise. The else part is optional.

If the block includes only one statement, enclosing it in {} is optional:

if (condition)
    $x = 1;


Like other smart contract definitions, AAs have a capped complexity which cannot exceed 100. Some operations involve complex computation or access to the database, such operations are counted and add to the total complexity count. Other operations such as +, -, etc, are relatively inexpensive and do not add to the complexity count. The language reference indicates which operations count towards complexity.

Total complexity is the sum of complexities of all oscripts. It is calculated and checked only during deployment and includes the complexity of all branches even though some of them might not be activated at run time.

If the complexity exceeds 100, validation fails and the AA cannot be deployed.


Arithmetic operators +, -, *, /, %, ^

$amount - 1000
$amount^2 / 4

Operands are numbers or converted to numbers if possible.

Additional rules for power operator ^:

  • e^x is calculated with exact (not rounded) value of e,

  • an exponent greater or equal to MAX_SAFE_INTEGER will cause an error,

  • for non-integer exponents, the result is calculated as x^y = e^(y * ln(x)) with rounding of the intermediary result, which causes precision loss but guaranties reproducible results;

  • this operator adds +1 to complexity count.

Concatenation operator ||

'abc' || 'def'              // 'abcdef'
[4, 6] || [3, 1]            // [4, 6, 3, 1]
{x: 1, y: 7} || {y: 8, a:9} // {x: 1, y: 8, a:9}

If the same key is found in both objects, the value from the right-hand one prevails.

Trying to concat an array with object results in error.

If either operand is a scalar (strings, numbers, booleans), both are converted to strings and concatenated as strings. Objects/arrays become "true".

Binary logical operators AND, OR

Lowercase names and, or are also allowed.

Non-boolean operands are converted to booleans.

The result is a boolean.

If the first operand evaluates to true, second operand of OR is not evaluated.

If the first operand evaluates to false, second operand of AND is not evaluated.

Unary logical operator NOT

Lowercase name not is also allowed. The operator can be also written as !.

Non-boolean operand is converted to boolean.

The result is a boolean.


Lowercase name otherwise is also allowed.

expr1 OTHERWISE expr2

If expr1 is truthy, its result is returned and expr2 is not evaluated. Otherwise, expr2 is evaluated and its result returned.

Comparison operators ==, !=, >, >=, <, <=

If both operands are booleans or both operands are numbers, the result is straightforward.

If both operands are strings, they are compared in lexicographical order.

If both operands are objects, only == and != are allowed, other operators will cause an error.

If operands are of different types:

  • if any of them is an object or boolean, it causes an error,

  • if any of them is a string, only == and != are allowed and non-string operand will be converted to string before comparison, other operators will cause an error,

  • all other combinations of types cause an error.

Ternary operator ? :

condition ? expr1 : expr2

If condition is truthy, expr1 is evaluated and returned, otherwise expr2 is evaluated and returned.

Operator precedence

Operators have the following precedence in the order of decreasing "stickiness":

  • ^

  • !

  • *, /, %

  • +, -, ||

  • ==, !=, >, >=, <, <=

  • AND

  • OR

  • ?:


Global constants


Pi constant rounded to 15 digits precision: 3.14159265358979.


Euler's number rounded to 15 digits precision: 2.71828182845905.

Built-in functions

Type of variable


Returns "string", "number", "boolean" or "object".

Square root and natural logarithm


These functions add +1 to complexity count.

Negative numbers cause an error. Non-number inputs are converted to numbers or result in error.

Absolute value


Returns absolute value of a number. Non-number inputs are converted to numbers or result in error.

Rounding (round, ceil, floor)

round(number [, decimal_places])
ceil(number [, decimal_places])
floor(number [, decimal_places])

Rounds the input number to the specified number of decimal places (0 if omitted). round uses ROUND_HALF_EVEN rules. Non-number inputs are converted to numbers or result in error. Negative or non-integer decimal_places results in error. decimal_places greater than 15 results in error.

Minimum and maximum

min(number1, [number2[, number3[, ...]]])
max(number1, [number2[, number3[, ...]]])

Returns minimum or maximum among the set of numbers. Non-number inputs are converted to numbers or result in error.

Square root of the sum of squares

hypot(number1, [number2[, number3[, ...]]])

Returns the square root of the sum of squares of all arguments. Boolean parameters are converted to 1 and 0, objects are taken as 1, all other types result in error. The function returns a non-infinity result even if some intermediary results (squares) would overflow.

This function adds +1 to complexity count.

Get part of a string

substring(string, start_index)
substring(string, start_index, length)

Returns part of the string. If length is not set then returns rest of the string from start index. If start_index is negative then substring uses it as a character index from the end of the string. If start_index is negative and absolute of start_index is larger than the length of the string then substring uses 0 as the start_index.

Find starting index of searched string

index_of(string, search_string)

Returns integer index (starting from 0) of searched string position in string. If searched string is not found then -1 is returned. Use contains if you don't need to know the index of the searched string.

String search within string

starts_with(string, prefix)
ends_with(string, suffix)
contains(string, search_string)

Returns boolean true if the string starts, ends or contains searched string.

Uppercase/Lowercase string


Returns the string with changed case.

Replace string

replace(str, search_str, replacement)

Replaces all occurrences of search_str in str with replacement and returns the new string.

Validate string

has_only(str, allowed_chars)

Returns true if str consists only of characters in allowed_chars. allowed_chars is a group of characters recognized by regular expressions, examples: a-z0-9, \w. has_only adds +1 to complexity.

Seconds until specified date


Attempts to parse string of date or date + time and returns timestamp. If you need to get seconds from UNIX Epoch of a current unit then use timestamp.

Convert seconds to date + time, date or time

timestamp_to_string(timestamp, 'datetime')
timestamp_to_string(timestamp, 'date')
timestamp_to_string(timestamp, 'time')

Returns string format of date + time (default), date or time from timestamp. Timezone is UTC.

Parse a JSON string into object


Attempts to parse the input JSON string. If the result of parsing is an object, the object is returned. If the result is a scalar (boolean, string, number), the scalar is returned.

This function adds +1 to complexity count.

If parsing fails, false is returned.

Non-string input is converted to string.

Serialize an object into JSON string


Stringifies the input parameter into JSON. The parameter can also be a number, boolean, or string. If it is a number outside the IEEE754 range, the formula fails. Objects in the returned JSON are sorted by keys.

Iteration methods (map, reduce, foreach, filter)

$ar = [2, 5, 9];
$ar2 = map($ar, 3, $x => $x^2);

The function for map, foreach, and filter accepts 1 or 2 arguments. If it accepts 1 argument, the value of each element is passed to it. If it accepts 2 arguments, key and value for objects or index and element for arrays are passed.

The second argument is the maximum number of elements that an array or object can have. If it is larger, the script fails. This number must be a constant so that it can be known at deploy time, and the complexity of the entire operation is the complexity of the callback function times maximum number of elements. If the function has 0 complexity, the total complexity of map/reduce/foreach/filter is assumed to be 1 independently of the max number of elements. Max number of elements cannot exceed 100.

A function is executed over each element of an array or object. The callback function can be anonymous like in the example above, or referenced by name:

$f = $x => $x^2;
$ar = [2, 5, 9];
$ar2 = map($ar, 3, $f);

Callback for map and filter can also be a remote getter:

$ar2 = map($ar, 3, $remote_aa.$f);

reduce has one additional argument for initial value:

$c = 3;
$ar = [2, 5, 9];

// sums all elements, will return 16
$acc = reduce($ar, $c, ($acc, $x) => $acc + $x, 0);

The callback function for reduce accepts 2 or 3 arguments: accumulator and value or accumulator, key, and value (accumulator, index, and element for arrays).

All these 4 functions are similar to their Javascript counterparts but unlike Javascript they can also operate on objects, not just arrays.

split, join

split("let-there-be-light", "-")  // ["let", "there", "be", "light"]
join(["let", "there", "be", "light"], "-")  // "let-there-be-light"

split("let-there-be-light", "-", 2)  // ["let", "there"]

The functions are similar to their counterparts in other languages. join can be applied to objects too, in this case the elements are sorted by key and their values are joined.

Reverse array

reverse([4, 8, 3])  // [3, 8, 4]

The function reverses an array and returns a new one. Deep copies of all elements are created.

Passing a non-array to this function results in error.

Keys of an object

keys({b: 3, a: 8}) // ['a', 'b']

Returns the keys of an object. The keys are sorted. Passing anything but an object results in error.

Length of any variable


Returns the length of string. number, object or array. When passed an object or array, it returns the number of elements in object or array. Scalar types are converted to strings and the length of the string is returned.

Length of an array


Returns number of elements if the object is an array. Have to use is_array to determine if object is an array. Use length instead.

Number from seed string

number_from_seed(string, max)
number_from_seed(string, min, max)

Generates a number from a seed string. The same seed always produces the same number. The numbers generated from different seed strings are uniformly distributed in the specified interval.

The first form returns a fractional number from 0 to 1.

The second form returns an integer number from 0 to max inclusive.

The third form returns an integer number from min to max inclusive.

This function is useful for generating pseudo-random numbers from a seed string. It adds +1 to complexity count.

SHA-256 hash

sha256(string|number|boolean|object, 'base64')
sha256(string|number|boolean|object, 'base32')
sha256(string|number|boolean|object, 'hex')

Returns SHA-256 hash of input string/object in Base64 encoding (default), Base32 or Hex encoding. Non-string inputs are converted to strings. This function adds +1 to complexity count.

Checksummed 160-bit hash

$definition = ["sig", {
  "pubkey": "Ald9tkgiUZQQ1djpZgv2ez7xf1ZvYAsTLhudhvn0931w"
$address = chash160($definition);

$aa_definition = ['autonomous agent', {
$aa_address = chash160($aa_definition);

Returns a 160-bit checksummed hash of an object, it is most useful for calculating an address when you know its definition, e.g. if you programmatically define a new AA and want to know its address in order to immediately trigger it.

Check trigger data existence


Returns boolean true if the trigger data parameter with name param exists.



Returns boolean true if the number is without fractionals.



Returns boolean true if the object is an array.



Returns boolean true if the object is an associative array (dictionary).



Returns boolean true if the string is valid Obyte wallet address.



Returns boolean true if the string is Autonomous Agent address.



Returns boolean true if number is positive, integer, and below MAX_CAP (maximum cap that any token can have on Obyte platform).


is_valid_signed_package(signedPackage, address)

Returns true if signedPackage object is a valid signed package signed by address address, returns false otherwise (the formula doesn't fail even if signedPackage doesn't have the correct format). address must be a valid address, otherwise the expression fails with an error. This function adds +1 to complexity count.

signedPackage object is usually passed through the trigger and has the following structure:

    "signed_message": {
        "field1": "value1",
        "field2": "value2",
    "authors": [
            "address": "2QHG44PZLJWD2H7C5ZIWH4NZZVB6QCC7",
            "authentifiers": {
                "r": "MFZ0eFJeLAgAmm6BJdvbEzNt7x0H2Fb5RQBBpMSmyVFMLM2r2SX5chU9hbEWXExkz/T2hXAk1qHmxkAbbpZw8w=="
    "last_ball_unit": "izgjyn9bpbJjwpKQV7my0Dq1VUHbzrLpWLrdR0fDydw=",
    "version": "2.0"


  • signed_message is the message being signed, it can be an object, an array, or scalar;

  • authors is an array of authors who signed the message (usually one), it has the same structure as unit authors and includes the signing address, authentifiers (usually signatures) and optionally definitions;

  • last_ball_unit: optional unit of last ball that indicates the position on the DAG at which the message was signed. If definition is not included in author, it must be known at this point in the ledger history. If there is no last_ball_unit in signedPackage, including address definition as part of each author is required;

  • version: always 2.0.

Usually, signedPackage is created by calling signMessage function from signed_message module:

var headlessWallet = require('headless-obyte');
var signed_message = require('ocore/signed_message.js');

signed_message.signMessage(message, address, headlessWallet.signer, true, function (err, signedPackage) {
    // handle result here
    trigger.data.signedPackage = signedPackage;

The function creates a correctly structured signedPackage object which can be added to trigger.data.


is_valid_sig(message, public_key, signature)

Returns true if signature is a correct ECDSA signature of message by the private key corresponding to public_key, returns false otherwise.

  • message is a string corresponding to the message being signed, the function will hash the message with SHA-256 before verifying the signature. In case message is not a string, the formula will fail.

  • public_key is a string containing the public key in a PEM format. For example:

    -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
    -----END PUBLIC KEY-----

    -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY----- and -----END PUBLIC KEY----- can be omitted, spaces or carriage returns will be ignored. If public_key is not a string, is not for a supported curve, or doesn't have the required length then the formula will fail.

  • signature is a string containing the signature in Base64 or hexadecimal format. In case signature is not a string or is not Base64 nor hexadecimal format, the formula will fail.

Supported algorithms:


brainpoolP160r1, brainpoolP160t1, brainpoolP192r1, brainpoolP192t1, brainpoolP224r1, brainpoolP224t1, brainpoolP256r1, brainpoolP256t1, prime192v1, prime192v2, prime192v3, prime239v1, prime239v2, prime239v3, prime256v1, secp112r1, secp112r2, secp128r1, secp128r2, secp160k1, secp160r1, secp160r2, secp192k1, secp224k1, secp224r1, secp256k1, secp384r1, sect113r1, sect113r2, sect131r1, sect131r2, wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls1, wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls4, wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls6, wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls7, wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls8, wap-wsg-idm-ecid-wtls9


PKCS #1 - 512 to 4096 bits


vrf_verify(seed, proof, pubkey)

Returns true if proof is valid, return false otherwise.

  • seed is a string from which is derived a proof unique for this RSA key. The formula will fail in case seed is not a string or is empty.

  • proof is an hexadecimal string value from 128 to 1024 characters (depending of RSA key size). Can be used with number_from_seed to obtain a verifiable random number.

  • pubkey is a string containing the RSA public key in a PEM spki format. For example:

    -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
    -----END PUBLIC KEY-----

    -----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY----- and -----END PUBLIC KEY----- can be omitted, spaces or carriage returns will be ignored. If public_key is not a string, is not for a supported curve, or doesn't have the required length then the formula will fail.

Supported algorithm: RSAPKCS #1 - 512 to 4096 bits


is_valid_merkle_proof(element, proof);

Check if a given element is included in a merkle tree. The proof has the following structure {root: string, siblings: array, index: number} and would normally come from trigger.data. One should check is_valid_merkle_proof and look up the merkle hash root from a data feed.



Aborts the script's execution with error message passed as the function's argument. The received money will be bounced to sender (less bounce fees).


require(condition, error_message);

Aborts the script's execution with error message error_message if the condition evaluates to a falsy value. The received money will be bounced to the sender (less bounce fees).

This is equivalent to

if (!condition) {


log(expr1, expr2, ...);

Use this function for debugging your AA. Its arguments are evaluated and are available in a logs array within the AA response object. You can access this object and inspect the logs while running tests through AA Testkit. It is available even if the script bounced. The logs are not saved anywhere in the DAG but the expressions are still evaluated and might add to your script's complexity. Remove all log() calls after debugging.

Ocore functions

These functions are to be used in conjunction with is_valid_sig and vrf_verify.


const sig = require(‘ocore/signature.js’)
var signature = sig.signMessageWithEcPemPrivKey(message, encoding, pem_key)

Returns a signature that can be verified with is_valid_sig

message is a string to be signed.

encodingis either 'base64 or 'hex'

pem_key is a string containing ECDSA private key in PEM format


const sig = require(‘ocore/signature.js’)
var signature = sig.signMessageWithRsaPemPrivKey(message, encoding, pem_key)

Returns a signature that can be verified with is_valid_sig.

message is a string to be signed.

encodingis either 'base64 or 'hex'

pem_key is a string containing RSA private key in PEM format


const sig = require(‘ocore/signature.js’)
var proof = vrfGenerate(seed, pem_key)

_**_Returns a proof that can verified with vrf_verify.

seed is a string from which is derived the unique proof

pem_key _**_is a string containing RSA private key in PEM format�

Key generation with openssl

Keys for the functions above can be generated with openssl.

RSA (mandatory for vrfGenerate and vrf_verify):

private key

openssl genrsa -out priv_key.pem 2048

Replace 2048 by any key length from 512 to 4096.

public key

openssl rsa -in priv_key.pem -outform PEM -pubout -out pub_key.pem


private key

openssl ecparam -name prime256v1 -genkey -noout -out priv_key.pem �Replace prime256v1 by any curve identifier listed above

public key

openssl ec -in priv_key.pem -pubout -out pub_key.pem


To-string conversion

Some functions and operators that expect strings as inputs need to convert non-string inputs to strings:

  • numbers are converted to strings using their decimal representation. For numbers whose exponent is greater than or equal to 21 or less than or equal to -7, exponential representation is used.

  • booleans are converted to strings true and false.

  • objects become strings true.

To-number conversion

Some functions and operators that expect numbers as inputs need to convert non-number inputs to numbers:

  • booleans true and false are converted to numbers 1 and 0 respectively.

  • objects become 1.

  • strings become numbers, + can be used to force the conversion, e.g. +'3' becomes 3, +false becomes 0.

To-boolean conversion

0 and empty string become false, all other values become true. Any value that would convert to true is called truthy, otherwise falsy.


Line comments

// this is a comment line
$x = 1; // this part of line is a comment

as well as block comments are supported:

A comment block

References to external variables


The address of the sender who sent money to this AA. If the sending unit was signed by several addresses, the first one is used.


The address of the sender who sent money to the initial AA of a chain of AAs. Same as trigger.address if there was no chain. When an AA sends money to another AA, trigger.initial_address remains unchanged.


The unit that sent money to this AA.


The trigger unit that started a chain of AA calls. Same as trigger.unit if there was no chain. When an AA sends money to another AA, trigger.initial_unit remains unchanged.



Output sent to the AA address in the specified asset.

assetID can be base for bytes or any expression that evaluates to asset ID.

field can be amount or asset or omitted. If omitted, amount is assumed. If the trigger unit had several outputs in the same asset to this AA address, their amounts are summed.

The search criteria can only be = (asset=$assetID) or != (asset!=$assetID).


if (trigger.output[[asset!=base]].asset == 'ambiguous'){

If there is no output that satisfies the search criteria, the returned .amount is 0 and the returned .asset is a string none. Your code should check for this string if necessary.

If there is more than one output that satisfies the search criteria (which is possible only for !=), the returned .asset is a string ambiguous. Your code should check for this string if necessary. Trying to access .amount of an ambiguous asset fails the script.



An object that stores the outputs sent to the AA address in various assets.

assetID can be 'base' for bytes or any expression that evaluates to asset ID.


$asset = 'base';

trigger.outputs is an associative array, you can iterate it with map, foreach, etc, delete elements, pass to functions, post as data message, etc.


Data sent with the trigger unit in its data message. trigger.data returns the entire data object, trigger.data.field1.field2 or trigger.data.field1[expr2] tries to access a deeper nested field:

  • if it is an object, object is returned;

  • if it is a scalar (string, number, or boolean), scalar is returned;

  • if it doesn't exist, false is returned.

  • exists function can be used to check if param exists.

For example, if the trigger unit had this data message

    "app": "data",
    "payload": {
        "field1": {
            "field2": "value2",
            "abc": 88
        "abc": "def"
    "payload_hash": "..."

trigger.data would be equal to

    "field1": {
        "field2": "value2",
        "abc": 88
    "abc": "def"

trigger.data.field1 would be equal to

    "field2": "value2",
    "abc": 88

trigger.data.field1.field2 would be equal to string value2,

trigger.data.field1['a' || 'bc'] would be equal to number 88,

trigger.data.field1.nonexistent would be equal to boolean false,

trigger.data.nonexistent.anotherfield would be equal to boolean false.


MCI of the trigger unit, which is the same as MCI of MC unit the response unit (if any) will be attached to.


Timestamp of the MC unit that recently became stable, this is the unit whose stabilization triggered the execution of this AA. This is the same unit the response unit (if any) will be attached to. It's number of seconds since Epoch - Jan 01 1970. (UTC).


Hash of the MC unit that includes (or is equal to) the trigger unit.


The size of AA’s storage occupied before the current invocation


Built-in variable says how many responses were already generated in response to a primary trigger and might help to avoid exceeding the limit of 10 responses per primary trigger.


Built-in variable that holds an array of responses generated by previous AAs in the chain (empty array for the first AA in the chain). Each element of the array is an object with the following fields:

  • unit_obj: response unit object (if any);

  • trigger_unit: trigger unit for this response;

  • trigger_address: trigger address for this response;

  • aa_address: address of the AA that handled the trigger and generated the response.


The address of this AA.


The hash of the unit that will be generated by the AA in response to the trigger. This variable is available only in state script. Any references to this variable in any other scripts will fire an error.



It allows to inspect the definition of any address using definition['ADDRESS'] syntax.


definition[trigger.address][0] == 'autonomous agent'
definition[trigger.address][1].base_aa == 'EXPECTED_BASE_AA'.



Extracts information about an asset. This adds +1 to complexity. expr is base for bytes or an expression that evaluates to an asset ID.

field is one of the following, or field_expr should evaluate to one of the following:

  • exists: boolean, returns false if asset ID is invalid;

  • cap: number, total supply of the asset. For uncapped assets, 0 is returned;

  • is_private: boolean, is the asset private?

  • is_transferrable: boolean, is the asset transferrable?

  • auto_destroy: boolean, does the asset gets autodestroyed when sent to definer address?

  • fixed_denominations: boolean, is the asset issued in fixed denominations? Currently AAs can't send fixed denomination assets, but if issued_by_definer_only is false then somebody else can issue them.

  • issued_by_definer_only: boolean, is the asset issued by definer only?

  • cosigned_by_definer: boolean, should each transfer be cosigned by definer?

  • spender_attested: boolean, should each holder be attested?

  • is_issued: boolean, is any amount of the asset already issued?

  • definer_address: string, returns wallet address of the definer.


asset['n9y3VomFeWFeZZ2PcSEcmyBb/bI7kzZduBJigNetnkY=']['is_' || 'issued']
asset['n9y3VomFeWFeZZ2PcSEcmyBb/bI7kzZduBJigNetnkY=']['is_' || 'private']

If the asset ID is valid, but does not exist then false is returned for any field.


data_feed[[oracles=listOfOracles, feed_name=nameOfDataFeed, ...]]

Finds data feed value by search criteria. This adds +1 to complexity.

There are multiple search criteria listed between the double brackets, their order is insignificant.

  • oracles: string, list of oracle addresses delimited by : (usually only one oracle). this_address refers to the current AA;

  • feed_name: string, the name of the data feed;

  • feed_value: string or number, optional, search only for this specific value of the data feed;

  • min_mci: number, optional, search only since the specified MCI;

  • ifseveral: string, optional, last or abort, what to do if several values found that match all the search criteria, return the last one or abort the script with error, default is last

  • ifnone: string or number or boolean, optional, the value to return if nothing is found. By default, this results in an error and aborts the script;

  • what: string, optional, value or unit, what to return, the data feed value or the unit where it was posted, default is value;

  • type: string, optional, auto or string, what type to return, default is auto. For auto, data feed values that look like valid IEEE754 numbers are returned as numbers, otherwise they are returned as strings. If string, the returned value is always a string. This setting affects only the values extracted from the database; if ifnone is used, the original type of ifnone value is always preserved.

Data feeds are searched before the MCI of the triggering unit (inclusively). If there are several AAs stemming from the same MCI, previous AA responses are also searched.


data_feed[[oracles='JPQKPRI5FMTQRJF4ZZMYZYDQVRD55OTC', feed_name='BTC_USD']]
data_feed[[oracles=this_address, feed_name='score']]
data_feed[[oracles='JPQKPRI5FMTQRJF4ZZMYZYDQVRD55OTC:I2ADHGP4HL6J37NQAD73J7E5SKFIXJOT', feed_name='timestamp']]


in_data_feed[[oracles=listOfOracles, feed_name=nameOfDataFeed, feed_value>feedValue, ...]]

Determines if a data feed can be found by search criteria. Returns true or